What is the difference between social capital and social cohesion?
There are a lot of similarities between the concepts of social capital and social cohesion. Both are defined in vastly different ways by different authors, both are conceptually vague, and both relate to social setting and social structure.
Depending on how you define the concepts there can be considerable overlap between them, leading some authors to treat social capital and social cohesion as synonymous. Others have conceptualised social cohesion as dependent on accumulated social capital and others see social capital as a subset of social cohesion.
Considering the definitional variability of both social capital and social cohesion, I am reluctant to make specific comparisons. I will, however, make some observations based on the common treatments of the terms.
Social capital is commonly conceptualised as having a network component, i.e. involving social relationships between individuals. Social capital is embedded in social relationships and is realised when people interact. Thus, social capital tends to have an individual focus, although most authors acknowledge or include the role of wider social setting in influencing the quality and nature of social interactions.
Social cohesion typically approaches the same issue from the group or societal level. It tends to focus on shared understandings such as solidarity, generalised trust, and widely help norms, values and attitudes. While social networks and social capital are a dimension of social cohesion, cohesion tends to focus on the importance of strong coordinating institutions which places the emphasis on society as a whole rather than existing in social relationships.
Considering the proliferation of definitions of both social capital and social cohesion I think there are few differences between the concepts. The one take away seems to be the tendency for social capital to focus on the individual and for social cohesion to focus on either the group or societal level.
Both involve exploring the nature of social interaction and exchange in a group or society. Both involve exploring the rationale for human behaviour, particularly as it relates to social interaction. The main difference seems to be the starting point: social capital tends to start with the individual, social cohesion tends to start with society.
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Tristan Claridge has a passion for technology, innovation and teaching. He is an academic and entrepreneur, and he uses his cross-discipline knowledge and experience to solve problems and identify opportunities. He has bachelors and masters degrees from the University of Queensland in Australia. He has qualifications in environmental science, social theory, teaching and research, and business management.
Tristan is dedicated to the application of social capital theory to organisations. His diverse experience in teaching, research, and business has given him a unique perspective on organisational social capital and the potential improvements that can be achieved in any organisation.