This study provides the basis for further conceptualization and identifies a number of areas where further research is required. There are currently a plethora of categorizations of social capital in the literature that require further work to establish a rigorous set of types. Another area that requires work is the causal relationships that determine productive / perverse social capital that appear to be highly context specific. A particularly important area is in the development of sufficient tools for empirical measurement and theoretically informed building attempts. There are a number of other research areas identified, including:
- processes working to reduce the costs associated with working together thereby facilitating collective action;
- the various levels, and ownership of social capital as well as the types, to establish an agreed framework and definition (with empirical support);
- processes and how they operate to build or improve social capital structure; and
- each of the elements of the conceptualization and measurement based on this theoretical framework.