Participation methodologies have been evolving and improving since first gaining international recognition in the 1960s. Despite these improvements there are still genuine concerns and criticisms of participation, particularly surrounding its application and effectiveness. The recent advent of social capital theory provides another lens for the analysis and ensuing improvement of participation methodologies. Social capital theory encompasses the notion that our social relationships are productive in nature; that is, ‘capital’. The theory describes the various dimensions of the complex social world that enable this capital. Both participation and social capital theories have many similarities; both are poorly defined, conceptualized and operationalized in both debate and application. The two concepts are highly context specific and highly complex. Individually, the concepts still require further analysis to answer key questions, particularly about appropriate application. Jointly, little work has been done to identify the impacts that they have on each other and particularly how social capital benefits can be maximized in participatory methodologies.
This study explored the theories with extensive literature reviews of each concept before breaking new ground with an integration of the two theories. This synthesis was then applied to a case study; an IFAD funded project in Zimbabwe. The project’s participatory methodology was analysed through the lens of social capital theory. The participatory methods analysed included; focus groups, public meetings, information dissemination and questionnaires. The analysis highlighted the potential importance of social capital sensitive participatory methodologies. Despite the efforts of the project development team, there were numerous oversights or missed opportunities where the project and community could have benefited from variations to the methodology used. It was found that by providing opportunities for repeat interaction in the participatory methodologies, social capital benefits could be maximised. It was also stressed that any social capital sensitive participatory methodology is by definition local context specific and application of such methods require careful analysis of the local context in which it is being applied.
- Application and Misuse of Participation
- Case Study
- Community in Participation
- Definition of Participation
- Evolution of Participation Theory
- Gender Issues and Participation
- Importance of Participation
- Integration of Participation and Social Capital Theories
- Limitations of Participation
- Participation as an End or Means
- Participation Theory Literature Review Summary
- Popularity pervasiveness of Participation
- Reference List for Participation Theories